Mention four measures to prevent Brain – Drain.

effects of brain drain

Brain Drain Meaning:

Mind channel alludes to the relocation of profoundly qualified, prepared and skilled people starting with one nation then onto the next. Presently a-days, it implies the surge of human capital from creating nations to created nations.

Brain Drain Essay

It includes worldwide relocation of specialists, doctors, characteristic researchers, social researchers, engineers, technologists, business chairmen, monetary specialists, data technologists, and so on to progressively prosperous nations like U.K., U.S., Germany, Australia, and so on.

Creating nations are extraordinary washouts because of mind channel when experts and specialized people emigrate to different nations. They sponsor the instructive expenses of such work force yet can't impose their livelihoods. The cash which some of them dispatch is immaterial as contrasted and the over two sorts of misfortunes.

Regularly the best of cerebrums settle abroad which is a lasting misfortune to the nation of origin. Mihir Desai, Devesh Kapur and John McHale of Harvard University have assessed that the complete salary of Indian-conceived inhabitants in the USA represents 10 percent of India's national pay, however they are just 0.1 percent of the American populace.

Components Leading to Brain Drain:

The accompanying variables lead to mind channel from creating nations like Brain Drain in India to created nations like the USA:

1. In creating nations, openings for work are constrained or no-existent. So profoundly qualified people relocate to created nations like U.S.A. to exploit more extensive and better openings for work.

2. Despite the fact that comparable aptitudes are required in both creating and created nations, individuals move and settle forever in the last nations since they pay extremely significant compensations. The acclaimed saying is "minds go to where cash is."

3. A few people travel to another country for higher examinations and research since scholastic and research offices are not of universal models in poor nations. For moments, there are top notch offices for research in social and characteristic sciences and innovation. These draw in people from poor nations who in the wake of securing higher capability in their individual fields forever settle there. Another truism is "Minds go where cerebrums are."

4. A couple of exceptionally talented individual relocate and settle for all time in created nations pulled in by an agreeable way of life when contrasted with their own nation.

5. Some are influenced by companions and relatives previously settled abroad to get advanced education and preparing. They at last settle in that nation by joining firms in their particular fields of study.

6. Another significant factor is the abundance supply particular and prepared people at home over the interest for them in created nations which urges individuals to relocate to created nations for all time.

7. Mind channel is additionally supported in creating nations due to "antagonistic, non-persuaded, obliged and non-inventive workplace" when contrasted with agreeable, helpful and solid workplace in created nations.

8. In creating nations steady employments are filled and advancements are made based on family associations, political impact and debasement. In open area organizations and oganisations, there is "Smothering and inert administration." Corruption is uncontrolled which supports mind channel abroad. Then again, opportunity of occupation, better openings for work, conceivable outcomes of expert development, budgetary security and friendly workplace draw in exceptionally qualified and talented faculty to created nations.

9. Nations like the United States, bait away capable labor from creating nations by changing their movement arrangements to allow and support such relocation.

Measures to Reduce Brain Drain:

The accompanying measures have been recommended by financial analysts to decrease mind channel from creating nation:

1. Prof. Parthasarathi in an article "Cerebrum in Developing Countries" proposes that each understudy ought to be permitted to go for higher investigation abroad just in the event that he has accomplished the most elevated conceivable degree of training in his picked field of concentrate in his very own nation. After this, he ought to be utilized in the nation for in any event two years before being allowed to travel to another country.

2. Prof. Dandekar in an article "The Brain Drain" proposes that the disparity inside the intellecutal positions both as far as status and pay, ought to be limited to lessen cerebrum channel.

3. Additionally, "a mentally invigorating condition" ought to be made in the establishments where the capable people work in the nation of origin.

4. An association ought to be set up to give data and counsel to profoundly qualified people on openings for work inside the nation.

5. There ought to be a Scientists Pool Scheme to help the youthful gifted researchers for positions in different foundations and associations and to draw in the individuals who are working or considering abroad to return to their nation.

6. Other than great compensation and advantages, they ought to be given such enhancements as lodging, tutoring for youngsters, transport, and so forth. For the individuals who are happy to come back from abroad ought to likewise be paid the movement toll by the association which they join.

7. Prof. Jagdish Bhagwati proposes the toll of a global expense on experts settling abroad. The nation to which the individual relocates for all time should gather this assessment and dispatch it to the nation from which the individual comes. Such an expense would be adequate to close the income shortages of creating nations.

As of late, Mihir Desai, Devesh Kapur and John McHale of Harvard University have experimentally conveyed forward Bhagwati's concept of the migration charge. They have evaluated that the net monetary loss of India from migration of talented people to the USA was between 0.24 percent and 0.58 percent of India's GDP in 2001.

As indicated by them, a Bhagwati Tax can yield a yearly income of about $ 500 million. They lean toward a "leave charge" on every talented individual who emigrate. Be that as it may, the issue is of gathering such an expense – when, where and how?

8. Prof. Bhagwati has additionally proposed the setting up a world relocation association on the lines of WTO to build up a reasonable strategy on the development of people crosswise over outskirts.

Most importantly, to avert mind channel and to draw in the individuals who have just settled abroad, it is fundamental that there is a harmonious workplace which gives monetary security, proficient development, in light of meritocracy and is free from bureaucratic defilement and nepotism.

Returning home of fruitful emigres, some of whom get impressively rich, will put money to begin enterprises in creating nations, along these lines prompting converse cerebrum channel.

Brain Drain Speech

Brian Drain alludes the circumstance when profoundly qualified and prepared individuals leave a nation to for all time settle in some other nation. It is additionally alluded to as Human capital flight. 

Profoundly instructed proficient individuals move to other propelled nations for better chances and an agreeable way of life. 

The issue of Brain-channel, in our age, has gotten slippery. The creating nations like India are urgently needing abilities, particularly in the field of science and innovation yet for one explanation or the other the gifts and escaping their nations, leaving their local grounds devastated all the while. 

Mind Drain is a very significant issue for a creating nations. The fate of such nations lies in the answer for this extraordinary issue. India can be taken as an occasion in point. After autonomy this nation is occupied with troublesome battle against destitution. Be that as it may, battles can't be propelled in papers; they require multitudes of prepared work force – the researchers, specialized skill and pros in the field of arranged advancement. On the off chance that, rather than adding to the success of India, the Indian researchers, look into researchers, designers, specialists and financial analysts move to different nations, it is hard to perceive how India can actualize her improvement designs and accomplish her objective of flourishing.

Brain Drain Essay in Hindi

जब शिक्षित और प्रतिभाशाली पेशेवरों का समूह, विशेष रूप से डॉक्टर, इंजीनियर और वित्तीय क्षेत्र से संबंधित लोग, बेहतर रोजगार के अवसर तलाशने के लिए अपना देश छोड़ कर दूसरे देश बस जाते हैं तो इसे प्रतिभा पलायन के रूप में जाना जाता है। भारत जैसे विकासशील देशों में यह समस्या काफी आम है। एक कंपनी या उद्योग से दूसरे में शामिल होने के लिए कर्मचारियों के बड़े पैमाने पर पलायन को प्रतिभा पलायन कहा जाता है। 

भारत प्रतिभा पलायन से बहुत ज्यादा ग्रस्त है 
भारतीय अलग-अलग क्षेत्रों में उत्कृष्टता और दुनिया के विभिन्न हिस्सों में उच्च वेतन वाली नौकरियों को हासिल करके देश का नाम रोशन कर रहे हैं। वे व्यापार और प्रौद्योगिकी के क्षेत्र में उत्कृष्ट होने के लिए जाने जाते हैं और कई रिपोर्ट के अनुसार संयुक्त राज्य के प्रौद्योगिकी उद्योग का एक बड़ा हिस्सा भारतीय है। इस प्रकार भारतीयों ने अमरीकी प्रौद्योगिकी के निर्माण के लिए प्रमुख रूप से योगदान दिया है और अर्थव्यवस्था को भी बदल कर रख दिया है। यदि उन्होंने भारत के विकास में इसका आधा भी योगदान दिया होता तो देश की वर्तमान स्थिति बेहतर होती। 

भारत में प्रतिभा पलायन की समस्या गंभीर है क्योंकि यहां उपलब्ध रोजगार के अवसर शिक्षा की गुणवत्ता के अनुरूप नहीं हैं। अन्य कारकों में से कुछ अनुचित रिज़र्वेशन सिस्टम, ज्यादा टैक्स और जीवन के निम्न स्तर शामिल हैं। 

प्रतिभा पलायन को नियंत्रित करने के तरीके 
प्रतिभा पलायन जो भौगोलिक और साथ ही संगठनात्मक स्तर पर हो रहा है उससे निपटना भी मुश्किल है। तो क्यों ना इससे बचने के तरीके खोजें। भौगोलिक और संगठनात्मक प्रतिभा पलायन की समस्या को दूर करने के लिए यहां कुछ तरीके बताएं गए हैं: 

आरक्षण प्रथा बंद हो 
भारत जैसे देशों में प्रतिभाशाली युवक कोटा प्रणाली से पीड़ित हैं। आरक्षित वर्ग के कई अयोग्य लोगों को उच्च वेतन वाली नौकरियां मिलती हैं जबकि योग्य उम्मीदवारों को कम वेतन वाली नौकरी से संतुष्ट होना पड़ता है। योग्य व्यक्तियों के लिए ऐसा स्वाभाविक है जो अलग देश में अपनी प्रतिभा के समान नौकरी तलाशने के लिए वहां स्थानांतरित हो जाते हैं। यह सही समय है कि भारत सरकार को इस पक्षपाती कोटा प्रणाली को खत्म करना चाहिए। 

मेरिट एकमात्र फ़ैसले का जरिया बने 
कोटा प्रणाली के अलावा लोगों को उनके पंथ, जाति और अन्य चीजों के आधार पर भी प्राथमिकता दी जाती है जिनका नौकरी से कुछ लेना-देना नहीं है। बहुत से लोग अपने समुदाय या शहर से संबंधित लोगों को नौकरी देते हैं। यह सब बंद कर दिया जाना चाहिए और एक व्यक्ति को उसकी योग्यता और क्षमता के आधार पर नौकरी मिलनी चाहिए। 

उचित प्रचार 
कई बॉस अपने कुछ कर्मचारियों को दूसरों के मुकाबले ज्यादा पसंद करते हैं। कई बार ऐसा देखा जाता है कि अगर कोई कर्मचारी कड़ी मेहनत कर रहा है और नौकरी अच्छे तरीके से कर रहा है तो भी उसे पदोन्नति देते वक़्त ध्यान में नहीं रखा जाता और जो बॉस का पसंदीदा है वह आसानी से पदोन्नत हो जाता है बेशक वह मापदंडों पर खरा नहीं उतरता हो। इससे कर्मचारियों के बीच असंतोष का कारण बनता है और वे बेहतर अवसरों की तलाश करते हैं। 

नेतृत्व में सुधार 
ऐसा कहा जाता है कि कर्मचारी कंपनी नहीं छोड़ता बल्कि वह अपने बॉस को छोड़ता है। अच्छे बॉस और प्रबंधकों की कमी के कारण कंपनी को कई प्रतिभाशाली कर्मचारियों के जाने का नुकसान उठाना पड़ता है। लोगों को अपने काम के लिए प्रोत्साहित किया जाना चाहिए और पुरस्कृत किया जाना चाहिए और यदि ऐसा सही समय पर नहीं होता है तो वे निराश हो जाते हैं और बाहर अवसरों की तलाश करते हैं। 

वेतन पैकेज 
वेतन पैकेजों का निर्णय लेने के लिए संगठन को निष्पक्ष होना चाहिए एक ही स्तर पर काम कर रहे कर्मचारियों के वेतन पैकेज की बात करते समय ज्यादा बदलाव नहीं होने चाहिए। इसके अलावा वेतन पैकेज बाजार के मानकों के बराबर होना चाहिए नहीं तो कर्मचारी नौकरी छोड़ कर वहां चले जायेंगे जहाँ उन्हें योग्य पैकेज मिल जाएगा। 

भारत जैसे विकासशील देशों की अर्थव्यवस्था को बढ़ावा देने के तरीकों का उद्देश्य प्रतिभा पलायन की समस्या को नियंत्रित करना है। लोगों को इस समस्या को नियंत्रित करने के तरीकों को गंभीरता से लेना चाहिए तथा सरकार और संगठनों द्वारा कार्यान्वित किया जाना चाहिए।

Brain Drain Group Discussion

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