Explain Robust Design.

A robust design is one in which the function and performance of the product or process are relatively insensitive to variations to any of the noise factors given below:

A noise factor is a source of variation that is impossible or difficult to control.

Type of noise factors--
1. Unit to Unit noise factor: These are random variations in the process and product caused by variability in raw materials, machinery and human participation. They are associated with a production process that is in statistical control.
2. Internal noise factor: These variations are internal to the product or process. They include (a) time dependent factor such as wear of mechanical component (b) operational errors, such as improper setting of the product or machine tool.
3. External noise factor: An external noise factor is a source of variation that is external to the product or process, such as temperature, pressure, voltage etc.

In product design, robustness means that the product can maintain consistent performance with minimal disturbance due to variations in uncontrollable factors in its operating environment.

In process design, robustness means that the process continues to produce good product with minimal effect from uncontrollable variations in its operating environment.

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