What are the major forms of Stratification System?

Caste: Caste is real organized group of society. In caste social status of individual varies. Some are higer some are lower. There is no definite geographical location. Endogamous system of marriage prevails which means members of a particular case cannot marry outside the caste.

Class: Stratification (division) based on wealth and prestige is called class. A class is a group of individuals, who through common descent, similarity of occupation, wealth and education have come to have a similar mode of life, a similar stock of ideas, feelings attitude and behaviour. The broad characteristics of class are-

(1) relation between lower and upper class
(2) superiority and inferiority
(3) social mobility from one class to another.

Differentiate between Folk ways and Mores.

(i) Folkways have wider character and scope compared to Mores.

(ii) Mores are more practical and effective in moulding and training the tendencies of individuals than the folkways.

(iii) Conviction of right and wrong comes out of Mores and not Folkways.

(iv) Mores are very deeply rooted in society than Folkways.

(v) Mores play both positive and negative roles and Folkways play only positive roles.

What are the recent changes in the Caste System?

(i) Due to technological advancement caste system is broken and at work caste has not much effect on the workers.

(ii) By educational infrastructure development taken place in last two decades, it has become possible for every caste member to take admissions in institutions to enhance or get education effecting caste system badly.

(iii) Globalization has also effected caste system badly and now caste has no effect in cities.

(iv) Education is now possible to female child also and make marriage institution and easy task for female and his family members, as female has become now earning member and is easy for female to marry outside the caste system.

(v) Now a days caste is for backward people.

Definition of variable in C programming language:

A variable is named location of data. In other word we can variable is container of data. In real world you have used various type containers for specific purpose. For example you have used suitcase to store clothes, match box to store match sticks etc. In the same way variables of different data type is used to store different types of data. For example integer variables are used to store integers char variables is used to store characters etc. On the basis of how many data a variable will store, we can categorize the all c variable in three groups.
(a)Variables which can store only one data at time. Example: integer variables, char variables, pointer variables etc.
(b)Variables which can store more than one data of similar type at a time. Example: array variables
(c) Variables, which can store more than one value of dissimilar type at a time. Example: structure or union variables.

Properties of variable in c:
Every variable in c have three most fundamental attributes. They are:
1. Name
2. Value
3. Address

Name of a variable:
Every variable in c has its own name. A variable without any name is name is not possible in c. Most important properties of variables name are its unique names. Not two variables in c can have same name with same visibility.

Explain the reason for cracking of brass

In addition to the changes in physical and chemical properties, internal stress, often of a very high intensity, may be left in the object after cold deformation.

Metals such as brass with internal stresses appearing after working is susceptible to intercrystalline corrosion. If it is stored for a long period. This leads to disintegration or failure of the metal. This phenomenon is called season cracking, or more correctly stress corrosion cracking. Development of cracks is accelerated by reaction with corrosive medium and the cracks go round the grains, i.e. they intercrystalline. This defect is overcome by annealing the brass at about 300 degree C.

How is martensite formed in steel?

Martensite is formed when specimen is quenched in water above the critical cooling rate from the austenitic region (i.e. above A3 temperature) to room temperature.

How do you determine the temperature for hot working of a metal?

The lower temperature limit of hot working is the lowest temperature at which the rate of recrystallization eliminates strain hardening. This lower limit depends upon
(i) amount of deformation
(ii) time for which the metal is at that temperature

Thus lower temperature limit for hot working is decreased, for large deformation.

Most hot working operations are done in a number of steps. The working temperature of intermediate phases is kept much above the lower temperature limit. At this temperature, the amount of deformation is more, as well as the cost of working is lower. But at this temperature grain growth will be there. To have, finally the fine grain size structure, the working temperature in the last pass (or step) is lowered. This finishing temperature is usually above the minimum recrystallization temperature.

Give two applications of nano materials?

(a) Next-generation computer chips
(b) Kinetic energy penetrators with enhanced lethality

What is array and why array in c?

An array is derived data type in c programming language which can store similar type of data in continuous memory location. Data may be primitive type (int, char, float, double…), address of union, structure, pointer, function or another array.

Example of array declaration:
int arr[5];
char arr[5];
float arr[5];
long double arr[5];
char * arr[5];
int (arr[])();
double ** arr[5];

Array is useful when:
(a) We have to store large number of data of similar type. If we have large number of similar kind of variable then it is very difficult to remember name of all variables and write the program.
(b)We want to store large number of data in continuous memory location. Array always stores data in continuous memory location.

Advantages of using array:
1. An array provides single name .So it easy to remember the name of all element of an array.
2. Array name gives base address of an array .So with the help increment operator we can visit one by one all the element of an array.
3. Array has many application data structure.

what is System Concept?

A system may be defined as a group of inter-related parts or elements designed to achieve a particular goal.

An engineering system usually utilises the human efforts, materials, machine and finance to achieve desired objectives.

A manufacturing system to be a collection of integrated equipment and human resources, whose function is to perform one or more processing and/or assembly operations on a starting raw material, part or set of part.

Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVS)

AGVS is a material handling system that uses independently operated, self propelled vehicles, guided along defined path ways. The vehicles are powered by on board batteries that allow many hours of operation (8-16 hrs is typical) between recharging.

The distinguishing feature of a AGVS compared to rail guided vehicle system and most conveyor system, is that the path way are un-obtrusive. AGVS is appropriate where different material are moved from various load points to various unload points. It is used in batch production and mixed model production system.

Types of AGVS
1. Driven less train
2. Pallet trucks
3. Unit load carriers

AGVS system are used in
1. Assembly line application
2. Storage and distribution
3. Flexible manufacturing system
4. Office mail delivery
5. Hospital material management

Explain the meaning of 'Work'. 'Work' is a central focus in 'Society'. Comment.

Any positive activity directed towards productivity and output is called work. We always worship work and say work is worshipped and not worship is work. It is centrally focused in the society is a correct statement. Without work nothing can be achieved. Work at home is attended mostly by womanfolk and work at site and offices are handled by man. Work leads to development of any society and without work society shall fail. If all the people living in the society attend to the work assigned then everybody shall be happy and wealthy. By doing work we are able to make money and with the help of money we buy all the necessary and luxury items required for sustaining the life. By doing work regularly in any profession or job we satisfy ourselves and justify our living on the planet earth. Man without work is devil. All devils engage in evils. Evil retard growth. Hence work is essential.

What is Design for Recyclability?

Designing so that reusable materials and long-lived components can be recovered, with reduced the cost of new component. Recently, a trend of environmentally conscious products alongwith the rapid implementation of worldwide environmental legislation have put the responsibility for the end of life disposal of products on to the manufacturer. Manufacturers must now implement rules during the design that enforces design for recyclability. By designing and considering it, manufacturer are gaining an edge over slow reacting competitors.

Difference between 'Science' and 'Technology'

By science we mean, a systematic study where facts are observed and classified for a particular phenomena. Science formulates quantitative laws and verify them for application through instruments and apparatus.

Technology means application of mind for learning methods and techniques of completing a given job or work efficiently. Technology applies science and scientific facts and achieve the benefits for mankind. Use of technology extend the ability of man beyond natural capacity of his mind. But all these depends on scientific laws and researches by scientists in labs and verifications made by them. So science and technology are incomplete without each other.

How many independant slip systems are required for plastic deformation in polycrystalline materials ?

No. of slip systems are required for plastic deformation in polycrystalline materials = 2 Nos.

What is Planning? How it can be made more effective?

Role of Planning in Development

Planning is a method of making better decisions for the future. It is an important component of development activities. The idea of planning was inherited from Russia. This country make long term development plans varying from 15 to 20 years. To plan is to act according to decision. All works with planning if well defined, goals and objectives are achieved whether it is an individual firm, professional body, governments, corporate sector or any other unit involved in economic growth, inter-sectional coordination, social welfare and social relations. In INDIA, the idea of planning has been identified more with extensive government control over the economy (country). Since 1951 successive 5 year plans have been prepared by the Planning Commission. These are development plans. So far we have completed nine five year plans, and are about to complete 10th FYP. Each plan lays down broad targets, energy and transport, industry, health and family welfare, science and technology etc. Ours is a mixed economy in which a plan acts as a mean of coordinating actions within the public sector and between the public and the private sectors. Even plan requires approval of the National Development Council which includes Chief Ministers of all the States. Planning in our country is highly centralized. Socioeconomic reformers suggest that we should choose between planning from above and planning from below.

The processes of production and consumption takes places in a Social Change.

Social Change comes with the change in the tools of production. Tools of production refer to equipments and machines used in producing different types of material and non-material goods.
Social Change means observable difference perceived (seen) over a period of time. Technology and use of tools bring major social change. The more advanced tools, the more rapid social change will be brought. Industrial revolution in U.K. and green revolution in India are considered two major process which have brought sufficient changes in the field of agriculture and industry and which has brought sufficient social change. Introduction of cooking gas, use of vacuum cleaner, water pumps, inverters and desert coolers have created social change in society.

What is Spooling ?

Spooling (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On Line): This is an I/O management technique in which dedicated devices are managed in efficient way. Here all output activities that is to be done (like printing etc.) is saved in memory until the process (program that is being executed) is completed. The saved output is then printed at high speed rather than intermittently spread over the entire duration of process.

State the crystal structures of Cementite and martensite.

Iron Carbide or Cementite (Fe3C): It is chemical compound of iron and carbon of composition Fe3C. It is of orthorhombic structure. Its unit cell has 12 iron atoms and 4 carbon atoms. It has carbon content of 6.67%. Its melting point is approximately 1550 degree C Cementite is magnetic upto 210 degree C. It is non-ductile and brittle, interstitial compound of low tensile strength but high compressive strength.
It iron-iron carbide diagram, the melting point of iron is shown by point (1538 degree C) and melting point of cementite is (1500 degree C). The structure changes from bcc ferrite to fcc austenite at point G (912 degree C) and from y-fcc to a-fcc at point N (1394 degree C).
When cooling rate is increased above critical value i.e. upon water quenching, the time is too less for carbon to diffuse out of solution. Therefore the fcc structure does not change to bcc structure while carbon is trapped in solution. The resulting structure is body center tetragonal which is called martensite. It is super saturated solid solution and non-cubic structure. The two dimensions of body center tetragonal unit cell are equal while the third side is slightly expandd because of trapped carbon. Because carbon is present in the lattice, slip does not occur easily. That is why, martensite is hard, strong and brittle. It has needle like structure.

What are the key features of a LAN ?

Key features of LAN are:-

1. Networking limited to a small geographical area (less than 1km radius)

2. High speed data transfer.

3. Data error rate is very less since data is transferred to limited distance.

4. Managing local area networks is easy as only a single technology and symmetrical topology is used.

5. Only limited number of computers connected in a LAN network.

6. Types of data supported is tailored to the application.

Write the scientific names of PET and Melamine.

PET (Polyethylene terephthalate)
Melamine (Melamine-formaldehyde)

Name two soft magnetic materials.

(i) Soft iron silicon alloy
(ii) Soft iron nickel alloys

Specify the key differences between an impact printer and a non-impact printer OR a graphics printer and a character printer with relevant examples.

Impact printers press formed character faces against an inked ribbon on to the paper. A line printer is an example of an impact device with the type faces mounted on bands, chains, drums or wheels.

Non impact printers use laser techniques, inkjet sprays, xerographic processes or electrostatic or electro-thermal methods to get images on the paper.

Character impact printers often have a dot matrix print head containing a rectangular array of protruding wire pins with the number of pins depending on the quality of the printer. Individual characters or graphics patterns are obtained by retracting certain pins so that the retracting pins from the pattern to be printed. Graphic applications use generally non impact printers with different color toners.

Distinguish between Information System and a File System.

Information system consists of collection of information which are stored in memory. This include library segments, data segments, system segment etc.

Modules of the operating system dealing with the management of information is called File Systems. File System is intended to provide convenient management of information. So the programmer is freed from problems related to the allocation of space for his information as well as other problems such as storage format and I/O addressing.

Specify the various processing steps that are needed in exact sequence when any existing high level source program lika a C program file stored on Disc is to be executed on a PC. Clearly mention the various system Software modulus clearly high lighting their roles.

When we want to execute a high level source program in disk, the following steps are performed:-

(i) Load the program from hard disk to primary memory.

(ii) Compiler is used to translate the program. Compiler generates an executable file and store it in disk.

(iii) Loader is then activated to load the program into primary memory at appropriate locations.

(iv) Linker is then activated to link various modules of the program.

(v) Program control is transferred to appropriate location within the program so that execution can start.

What are the distinctive features of a Relational Data Base? Specify with some examples.

A Relational Data Base usually consists of many relations (table of values in which each row represent collection of related data values). A row in the table is called tuple. A column header is called an attribute. Data is stored in relations and retrieved according to the needs of user using query language (like SQL).

What are the various types of resource management modules (if any) that area present in any operating system? Specify their functionality in brief.

There are four major resources that are controlled by the operating system are:-

(a) Memory
(b) Processors
(c) Devices
(d) Information

Memory management module organizes the memory allocation and effective utilization of memory. It involves paging mechanism, segmentation etc.

Processor management involves effective utilization of processor like multi-programming. Processor management module keep track of status of each process and select the processes from a ready list to be run. It suspend running process when it runs out of allotted time. It also co-ordinate inter process communication. The component of the operating system that perform these tasks is called traffic controller.

Device management modules helps to use the devices in most efficient manner. Devices can be dedicated or shared access type. Certain devices like printer, magnetic tapes can be used one at a time manner. They can be allocated in dedicated manner or by Spooling, I/O management modules decide this. Magnetic drum disks etc. can be concurrently used by more than one job. In such cases if two or more jobs wish to access the same device simultaneously. Operating system must act as I/O traffic controller.

Modules of operating system dealing with management of information are often called the file system. It is concerned with the logical organisation of information. The file system deals with collections of unstructured and uninterpreted information at the operating systems level.