Discuss the impact of technological and cultural factors on Social Change.


(i) Geographical mobility in an industrial society is very important for job promotion. The workers must go to those places where they expect promotion. Rapid industrialization uproot the members of the family and separate them from the strong tie of kinship. This weakens the hold of family and bring about structural change drastically.

(ii) An industrial society offer a number of economic opportunities with better prospects of social mobility. Socially mobile people gain many experiences concerned with education, interests and tastes of which they remain deprived of while extended in conventional ridden family. With the result, the bonds of common interest between the relatives in the extended family are lessened or even shattered.

(iii) In big towns and cities, people turn to agencies than the family in order to meet their many needs. Non-kin organizations such as schools, hospitals and recreation as well as welfare centres assume many functions including child-care and socialization performed by family. With the result, the very bonds which kept the extended family together in one circuit begin to dissolve. People began to seek new foundation of married life having thick companionship with single spouse and children being looked as individuals rather than productive units.

(iv) Industrialization ensures better socio-economic status which was recognized by birth and the importance of kinship in a traditional extended family. Individual's goals have become important than kinship obligations. Personal freedom in matters of mating and place of residence has further brought sufficient changes in the family.

(v) Children in a modern society are being looked at as economic liability than economic asset. The parents receive no economic gain from the vast expenditure they incur in feeding and educating their children. As soon as the young one are able to earn, they leave home and start forming separate families. People prefer and find it convenient to live away in a isolated places as an independant units.

Is Sociology a Science? Discuss.

There is great controversy about the nature of sociology as a science. Some critics deny sociology to be claimed as science while other argues that it is science. Before explaining whether 'sociology' is science or not, it would be proper to know the meaning of science. Science is a systematised body of knowledge concerning cause and effect of a particular phenomenon. Science refers to logical and systematic methods of which knowledge of the universe is obtained and to the actual body of knowledge produced by these methods. The sciences are conventionally divided into two parts - natural sciences and social sciences. Natural science deals with the physical and biological phenomenon and the social science studies various aspects of human behaviour. There are important differences between the two. Sociology is a social science. Now the question arises what constitute natural science and if at all sociology should be called natural science and if at all sociology should be called natural science then what those grounds are? To support sociology is a science we give following points:

(1) A sociology is bound to be methodological and systematic in his approach. His question need to be clear, precise. The questions are to be specific and not ambiguous (vague or full of doubts.)

(2) Data which sociologist collect are best suited for future predictions.

(3) Data collected by socilogist are based on observations and they are classified in latter stages of research.

(4) Carefully concluded results of a sociologist have universal application. These results can be tested under all circumstances and at all times.

(5) Relationship between cause and effect is fully and well recognised in the study of sociology. The only difference is that socilogist concepts cannot be tested in the laboratory as done in case of physical sciences because they deal with human behaviour which changes from time to time.

Discuss the changing role and functions of family.

Family as an association of men and women staying together in a common dwelling (house) place alone or with children having economic interdependence engaged in procreation (production) and upbringing of children.

Functions and role of family as a form of social control:-
1. Regulation of sexual behaviour is the basic function of family system. Sexual behaviour is not a matter of private choice and no society would permit to do mating at random. The marriage and family system, provides means of regulating sexual behaviour by permitting who mate with whom.
2. Replacement of members from one generation to another generation is necessary for survival of the society.
3. Family is the earliest and most important agency of Socialization.
4. Family offer care, protection, security, love affection shelter and warms to infant. It also provides material and emotional support.
5. Social behaviour of human is controlled by family his etiquettes behaving and dealing other social members is controlled through family.

Differentiate between Frenkel and Schottky defects?

Frenkel Pairs: One such type of defect involves a cation-vacancy and a cation- interstitial pair. It might be thought of as being formed by a cation leaving its normal position and moving into an interstitial site. There is no change in charge because the cation maintains the same positive charge as an interstitial. This is called a frenkel defect.
e.g. closed packed structures have fewer interstalices and frenkel defects, because additional energy is required to force the atom into a new position.

Schottky defect: The removal of a positive ion to create a vacancy must be counter balanced by the removal of a negative ion in order to maintain neutrality. The pair of vacancies is termed as schottky defect.
e.g. with a sodium chloride crystal, the removal of a positive sodium ion is balanced by the removal of a negative chlorine ion in order to maintain neutrality.

Describe Fick's first law of diffusion. A plate of iron is exposed to a carburizing atmosphere on one side and a decarburizing atmosphere on the other side at 700 degree C. Under steady state condition calculate the diffusion flux of carbon through the plate, if the concentration of carbon at position of 5 mm and 10 mm beneath the carburizing surface are 1.2 kg/m3 and 0.8 kg/m3, respectively. Assume a diffusion coefficient of 3 * 1011 m2/s at this temperature.

Fick's First Law of Diffusion: The rate at which particles diffuse in steady state conditions i.e. when there are no changes in the system with time, the rate of diffusion is proportional to the concentration gradient dC/dx, this is known as Fick's First Law.

From the Fick's first law,
J= -D dC/dx

is utilized to determine the diffusion flux.

Substitution of the value above into this expression yields.

J = -D CA-CB/xA-xB

where, D = 3 * 10-11 m2/s

CA = 1.2 kg/m3, CB = 0.8 kg/m3

xA = 5 * 10-3 m ; xB = 10-2 m

J = -D CA-CB/xA-xB = -(3 * 10-11) 1.2-0.8 kg/m3/(5 * 10-3-10-2) m

J = 2.4 * 10-9 kg/m2-s

Mention different types of Bravais lattices possible in crystalline materials. Show that the atomic packing factor (APF) of FCC crystal structure is 0.74.

The French mathematician Bravais from geometrical considerations that there can be only 14 different ways in which similar points can be arranged in three dimensional space. Thus, the total number of space lattices belonging to all the seven crystal system put together is only 14. These are known as Bravias Lattice.


Atomic packing factor of FCC and BCC crystal: In the FCC unit cell illustrated, the atoms touch one another across a face-diagonal the length of which is 4 R. Since the unit cell is a cube, its volume is a3, where a is the cell edge length.


From the right triangle on the face,

a2 + a2 = (4R)2

a = ∫8R = 2R∫2

The FCC unit cell volume Vc may be computed from

Vc = a3 = (2R∫2)3 = 16R3∫2 ANS.

The APF (atomic packing factor) is defined as the function of solid sphere volume in a unit cell.

APF= Total sphere volume = Vs
Total unit cell volume = Vc


Both the total sphere and unit cell volumes may be calculated in terms of the atomic radius R.



Face-centred Cubic (F.C.C.) structure

The Volume for a sphere = 4/3 πR³

Since there are 4 atoms per FCC unit cell

Number of atoms in all six faces = ½ x 6 =3

Number of atoms in all corners = 1/8 x 8 = 1

Total number of atoms = 3 + 1 = 4

The total FCC sphere volume is

Vs = 4 x 4/3 πR³ = 16/3 πR³

The total unit cell volume is Vc = 16 R³ ∫2

The atomic packing factor is

APF = Vs/Vc = 16/3 πR³/16 R³∫2 = 0.74